Klein has conducted a classic study on this. He found that more meaningful the irrelevant word, the more interference it caused. Klein has tried to vary the verbal text in which the colours are embedded. In condition A, the items were nonsense syllables bjh, eygjc, bhdr , In condition B, they were rare English words abjure ,.
In condition C, they were common English words. In condition D, they were colour related words grass, fire, sky In condition E, they were different words of the same response class tan, violet, aqua In condition F, it was the standard condition words same as the colour names but presented in incongruent combinations of colour and word. The results of the experiment were as follows: As the words became more meaningful and more closely related to colours, the interference increment time reading time of conflict page minus reading time for colour alone became increasingly larger.
Clearly, different attributes of the words differentially affected the colour-naming response. Not only colour words but also highly familiar words had an interfering effect, but in a lesser degree. Even the arbitrary letter-combinations of the non-sense syllables created a significant rise in interference over the naming of colour in asterisks.
The verbal text affects the ease of colour naming. To make the appropriate motor-response, S has to expend effort momentarily to restrain the near-threshold irrelevant response.
This effort may be reflected in the slowed reading time. Some studies are related to the Stroop facilitation. If the wrong or incongruent word interferes with the colour-naming, then the congruent word ought to speed performance. It was found that congruent colour-word unit produces less interference than incongruent colour-word unit. Raz, Kirsch, Pollard and Nitkin-Kaner demonstrated that the suggestion to construe words as meaningless symbols characters of an unknown foreign language reduces, or even eliminates, standard Stroop interference in highly suggestible individuals.
In other words, researchers concluded that, suggestion de-automatize word reading. According to Raz, suggestion may instigate lowered visual system activation by reducing attention either to specific visual stimuli e. Augustinova and Ferrand , challenge the claim of Raz et al that suggestion de-automize word reading.
They found significant semantically based stroop effect, which led to conclusion that word reading cannot be de-autmatized. Semantic activation cannot happen without reading. That means, suggestion does not de-automatize or prevent reading, but rather simply reduces non-semantic task-relevant response competition.
Experiment-wide manipulations of information: These studies include the probability of various trial types, stimulus set size, trial sequence and reverse stroop effect. Psychologists like Dalrymple-Alford found that colour naming reduced as more congruent trials were added. It was first reported by Stroop himself. This effect occurs only after considerable training and is quite transient. This occurs mainly due to practice and training. Many studies have proved that the Stroop interference is a direct consequence of differential practice.
Thus variation in practice should have a direct impact on the task. Intuitively, extended practice with the Stroop task should lead to reduced interference as subjects develop a strategy for coping more successively with the task. Majority of the studies have observed this result. Some psychologists have examined the response modalities in the Stroop task. The general conclusion of all these studies is that interference is reduced when response modality is switched from oral to manual.
Many researchers have examined the relation between Stroop interference and some individual differences parameters. The general conclusion of these studies is that there is no difference between men and women in the Stroop task.
Age difference- A life span study was conducted by Comalli where the sample consisted of Ss from 7 yrs to 80 yrs of age. They found the greatest interference in young children; interference declined into adulthood and then increased again with advanced age. Hemispheric Differences- Studies by Dyer, McCown, Schmidt and Davis have concluded that the left hemisphere shows more interference than the right. Language Differences- In this field, studies were conducted on bilinguals.
In studies conducted by Dyer and Lambert, the procedure involved naming the ink colour in one language but the words were written in another language. However, there have been no conclusive findings on these studies. Relative speed of processing and automaticity view are two prevalent and preeminent views in the literature and they are conceptually close to each other.
Words are read faster than colours are named Cattell, ; Fraisse, As Stroop explains his data, the associations that have been formed between the word stimuli and the reading response are evidently more effective than those that have been formed between the colour stimuli and the naming response. Since these associations are product of training, and since the difference in their strength corresponds roughly to the difference in training in reading words and naming colours, it seems reasonable to conclude that the difference in speed in reading names of colours and in naming colours may be satisfactorily accounted by the difference in training in the two activities.
This speed difference is seen as particularly critical when two potential responses e. First, it is assumed that there is parallel processing of the two dimensions of the stimulus at differential speed. Third, there is a potential for priming of possible responses from several sources including preceding trials and other response set elements.
Greater the attensive power, more the interference created by the word. According to Klein, attensive power, in the context of a colour naming task is a function of the meaningfulness of words. In the Stroop task the Ss are not allowed to release the word response, they have to name the colour instead.
This makes it necessary for the S to seek additional stimulation from the region for relevant perceptual information. This means that the colour naming threshold is assumed to be constant and reaching this threshold has been retarded by the arousal of a competing motor response. To reach it, the subject stimulates himself again with the colour-word combination.
Increase in the reading time is indicative of the time required by the S to stimulate himself again. Klein however has not specified the mechanism of restimulation. In condition I, Ss first read aloud the word and then named the colour of the colour-word unit. Ss in condition II read aloud both the words in reverse order of Condition I — i.
If holding back the word contributes to interference, the interference in colour naming should reduce only when the word is allowed to come out first i. The interference would still operate in condition II, when Ss were permitted to release the word, only after naming the colour.
The relative frequencies of errors in the Standard and Double Response tasks also showed that colour naming was easier in condition I word-then-colour. The basic idea is that, processing of one dimension requires much more attention than does the processing of the other dimension. Thus, naming the ink colour draws more heavy attentional resources than does reading the irrelevant words.
Moreover, reading the word is seen as obligatory, whereas naming the colour is not. Words are read automatically and colours require more attention to be named. More automatic processing interferes with the less automatic processing and vice versa. This description is based on the theories of La Berge and Samends , Posner and Snyder and many others. All of these investigations show Automaticity as a gradient that develops with learning.
Thus, word reading was very automatic; the colour naming was much less automatic. Most automatic processing could then interfere with less automatic processing, but not vice versa.
The Stroop Effect is an interesting case especially because the two dimensions differ so much in how automatically they are processed. The basic idea is that perceptual encoding of ink colour information is slowed by incompatible information from a colour word. Colour words are recognized earlier and thereby more likely to distract the subject from encoding ink colour.
This view has been criticized by Dyer as relying on a questionable assumption about the rates of processing word versus colour information. According to Logan, stroop Effect is decision process gathering evidence.
Evidence accumulates over time until a response threshold is reached. Evidence from each dimension is processed at a rate governed by its weight. These weights determine each dimensions contribution to the decision.
Total evidence at threshold is the sum of all evidence from all the dimensions. If the evidence from all the other dimensions is consistent with the desired dimension, the threshold and the processing for the desired dimension is reduced.
However, if irrelevant dimensions provide evidence conflicting with the desired dimension, response speed will be slowed. According to this model, processing occurs in a system through activation moving along pathways of different strengths. It proposes that cognitive processes can be understood in terms of networks that link together millions of units.
Processing is performed in a system comprised of interconnected modules and within each module there are continually operating elementary processing units responsible for accepting input from the some units and then providing output to the other units.
Knowledge is represented as a pattern of activation over units which can change in time in continuous, non-linear manner. Processing occurs by speed activation along connections that exist within modules as well as between modules. For simplification, Cohen assumed that information flows in one direction i.
When the model is instructed to perform a task, it selects a pathway that includes some or all of the units in one or more modules. The set of connections in this pathway, specifies its strength and the choice of pathway, therefore it determines both the speed and accuracy of processing. Individual units can be members of more than one pathway, allowing interactions between processes when their pathways intersect.
Thus, if the two pathways are active simultaneously and produce conflicting activation at their intersection, interference results and if they produce coinciding activation, facilitation results. Such intersections can occurs anywhere in processing and there can be multiple intersections.
One of the features of this model is its incorporation of a clear role for attention. Attention tunes or modulates the operation of processing units in a pathway. However, attention accomplishes this tuning simply as another source of information would, it has no privileged status. For example, there are two pathways- one for the ink colour and one for the word information — that share a response mechanism.
Each pathway has a set of input units each of which connects to every intermediate unit. In turn, each intermediate unit connects to all output units. Processing begins with the input units and feeds upward to the response units, one of which will eventually acquire sufficient activation to exceed the threshold and produce a response. The only other element is the task-specific attentional units attached to the task-appropriate intermediate units and capable of tuning attention.
Parallel distributed processing approach — when s is assigned the task of reading words and naming colorus, two pathways are activated. Through the routine use of controlled designs, it has been repeatedly shown that individuals who abuse or depend on alcohol show larger alcohol-related interference effects than individuals who do not Johnsen et al.
The attentional bias towards alcohol-related is one of numerous findings that may help explain the reason why such individuals have particular difficulties in reducing their alcohol consumption even if their consumption is problematic. This also may aid in explaining why, after successfully controlling consumption, a return to abusive levels of consumption so frequently occurs Cox, Yeates Regan, The importance of an alcohol-related attentional bias is that it potentially impacts on consumption decisions in two distinctly different ways.
Research on alcohol-related attentional bias with the Stroop has not been confined to individuals who abuse or depend on alcohol. Interest in a wide range of alcohol cognitions along the entire consumption continuum means that cognitions in the regions of use and misuse have become a research focus in their own right, and not just as controls for helping understand cognitions associated with abuse and dependence Bruce, Jones, However, whereas attentional bias appears to be a frequently found feature of individuals who abuse and depend on alcohol compared to those who do not, the subsequent evidence for its presence in heavier compared to lighter users or misusers from Stroop experiments is limited.
Using the Stroop paradigm, it has been confirmed that the bias might only become evident under the conditions of a test in which additional, explicit alcohol cues are present Jones and Schulze, More direct support for an attentional bias among social drinkers has recently been provided by another group Jones et al.
However, unlike Cox et al. We will demonstrate if we can obtain the same results. In , John Ridley Stroop investigated interference in serial verbal reactions. In one of his experiments, participants were presented with names of colors were printed in different ink colors. The word meaning and ink color were either the same, for example the word red printed in red ink, or they were different, for example the work green printed on yellow ink.
The participants were there then instructed to name the ink color of each word, ignoring the word itself. Stroop effect refers to the finding that participants are slower to name the ink colors when they are different from the meaning of the word then when they are the same. The paradigm and its widespread use have driven many authors to offer explanations that account for the classic Stroop effect.
One explanation that accounts for the Stroop effect asserts that processing word meaning, is more automatic than processing ink color.
- Describe Stroop's Famous Experiment and the Stroop Effect Strop Ridley wrote the article, known as the “Studies of Interference in Serial Verbal Reactions” in the year The article was based on a research that he conducted using colors to analyze the effects of interference on serial verbal reactions.
The current paper presents results of two experiments attempting to replicate with Polish speakers a Stroop-like interference of grammatical number with the counting task, first reported by Berent et al. () for Hebrew. Dont miss your chance to earn better grades and be a better writer!mechanics of writing a research report Stroop Effect Research Paper revise essay online free thesis statement generator for argumentative essayIn psychology, the Stroop effect is a demonstration of /10().
Stroop Effect 4/12/ CAL STATE FULLERTON Abstract This research is designed to study attention and automatic processing of the brain by replicating the Stroop effect experiments that was conducted before. The participants included 12 female and 6 male students from Cal State Fullerton. The Stroop effect was originally named after John Ridley Stroop and was published in The test demonstrates the difference in reaction time of naming colours, reading names of colour, and naming colours of words printed in different ink.