The authors found that owing to the increased concern over environmental issues, the buying pattern of consumers changed Yazdanifard and Mercy, Consumers have drifted towards purchasing products and services that they perceive as more environment friendly.
It can be analysed that considering the growth in green consumerism, businesses devise new marketing strategies that respond to the demands of consumers. This has made the companies adopt strategies and tactics that come under greeen marketing. Eventually marketing transformed into green marketing. All organizations essentially consider the aspect of marketing mix. This is important for making the product reach the right consumers at the right place through appropriate channels.
Ottman, Stafford and Hartman, found that when organizations consider the perspective of green marketing, they modify their marketing mix as per the requirements Ottman, Stafford and Hartman, Green marketing is all about bringing changes in all the elements that are related to a product. It can be critically analyzed that adding a green label to the product does not make a company as practicing green marketing. Alterations have to be brought in the four elements of marketing mix.
As such, product, price, place and promotion have to be changed. It can be analyzed that the elements of marketing mix have to be modified to suit green marketing strategy of company.
But, it can be critically evaluated that green marketing would arise the need of developing a thorough understanding of the market.
Robinot and Giannelloni, suggest changing the product element of marketing mix while pursuing a green marketing strategy. It can be analyzed that raw materials and ingredients that are used for producing the product need to be sourced in an environmental friendly way Robinot and Giannelloni, This implies use of those manufacturing and distribution methods with the help of which the companies can reduce their carbon footprint. It requires sourcing raw materials that are natural and organic.
Also, fewer chemicals are to be used in farming. All these practices make the product element of marketing mix in accordance with green marketing strategy. However, it can be critically evaluated that there are certain limitations that are faced by organizations while doing so. Manaktola and Jauhari, claim that the biggest issue is that of prices.
Practices that are adopted for production under green marketing make products expensive which acts a barrier in their acceptance by consumers. The authors found that for manufacturing organic food, natural fertilizers are used Manaktola and Jauhari, This makes it more expensive as compared to other products.
It can be critically analyzed that a prices create a gap between green products and other products. Daub and Ergenzinger, also support the presence of green pricing gap. In their study, authors found that consumers do not willingly accept green product and purchase it because price act as a barrier. It was found that place element, in green marketing strategy, consists of adoption of sustainable practices in distribution channels D'Souza and et.
It can be analyzed that organizations modify place element of marketing mix for incorporating the green aspect in their operations.
Sustainable practices such as solar energy panels and energy efficient lights in stores are adopted by various organizations. Montoro-Rios, Luque-Martinez and Rodriguez-Molina explored promotion element of marketing mix in relation to green marketing strategy.
The authors found that in order to promote the environmental protection characteristics of their products, organizations use environmental friendly communication tools and tactics Montoro-Rios, Luque-Martinez and Rodriguez-Molina, These promotion tools are those that assist the people and communities to grow in a healthy way. However, it can be critically analyzed that green marketing in itself entails promoting the environmental friendly characteristics of a product.
It comprises of using terms such as recyclable, degradable and environmentally friendly. Customer satisfaction is the measure of the extent to which products of a company meet the expectations of consumers. Chen assert that customer satisfaction determines repurchase intentions and loyalty of customers Chen, It can be analyzed that if customers are satisfied, they repurchase the products and services of a company. Jain, Roopshikha and Bandhu, found in their study that consistency is the key to making customers satisfied Jain, Roopshikha and Bandhu, With consistent efforts that a company makes, customers develop faith and trust in it.
This makes them satisfied and motivates them to be loyal to the firm. Ottman, Stafford and Hartman, assert that customer satisfaction is an abstract concept and consists of various factors Ottman, Stafford and Hartman, These include quality of product or service, atmosphere of location of the product, price of product etc. Sivesan, Achchuthan and Umanakenan, consider customer satisfaction as the center of marketing. It can be analysed that all the aspects of marketing are decided taking into account the concept of customer satisfaction Sivesan, Achchuthan and Umanakenan, Horne studied the role of green marketing in achieving various organizational objectives.
The authors found that customer satisfaction is an important objective that is achieved with the help of green marketing Horne, However, it can be critically analyzed that environmental protection is also an objective of the firms which they fulfill with the help of green marketing.
Grundey and Zaharia , claim that customer satisfaction is a measure of the extent to which products and services meet or surpass the expectations of customers Grundey and Zaharia, The authors considered it as an outcome or process which results from the consumption experience of a product. However, it can be critically evaluated that it is the intention with which consumers purchase a product.
Customers intend to purchase a product if they feel contented by using it. Boztepe in their study found out that an organization is able to obtain satisfaction of its customers if it carries out activities that are favored by them Boztepe, Great concern is showed by the customers regarding environment.
Chen and Chang , support that customers have increasingly become conscious about the impact that organizational activities have on the environment Chen and Chang, It can be evaluated that as green marketing is focused in enhancing the effectiveness of organization in the area of environmental protection, it can likely satisfy customers.
For example, Tesco claims to reduce its carbon emissions of all the stores by the year This is a serious initiative that the company has taken towards protecting the environment Reducing our impact on the environment, In this way, they are able to meet the contentment level of the consumers Green and et. This makes the firms achieve customer satisfaction. While adopting green marketing strategy, firm highlight the environmental advantages of their products and services.
By using these products, the customers feel that they have contributed towards protection of environment. Jain and Kaur, have views that customers are satisfied when they feel that they are a part of organization which cares for environment Jain and Kaur, Green marketing projects the image of an organization as one that keeps the interests of natural environment forward while carrying out all its activities.
It can be analyzed that by being a part of such an organization, customers feel satisfied. According to Jain, Roopshikha and Bandhu, customers have become environmental conscious and want to make efforts towards providing protection to the natural environment Jain, Roopshikha and Bandhu, It can be analyzed that they favor using products that have been manufactured in a way that least harm has been caused to the environment. For example, Sainsbury manufactures products by using environmental friendly practices.
It works closely with the suppliers to source raw materials in ways that protect the natural surroundings. The store also uses per cent recycled crate Responsibility, It has also made improvements in its Lorries so as to reduce impact of its large scale distribution network on environment. Polonsky suggests that customer satisfaction can be obtained when companies continuously work to provide them with service of superior quality.
However, it can be critically analyzed that customer satisfaction can result when companies are able to meet the basic needs of the customers. In these days, customers want to care for the environment. They have become informed about the hazards that human activities have caused to it. Moreover, activities which support the environment are favored by consumers. Thus it can be analyzed that green marketing can make the customers satisfied.
By undertaking activities that promote the well being of natural resources and surroundings, organizations are able to gain trust of customers. Simula and Salo, support that customer satisfaction is based on the trust that they keep in organization and its activities. Reduction in wastages and optimal use of resources ensure the customers that firm cares for environment over its interests Simula and Salo, Feeling proud in being a part of such an organization makes the customers purchase its products thus leading to their satisfaction.
However, companies like ASDA have failed to retain that trust as its green marketing activities were found to be misleading and inaccurate Brownsell, It can be critically analyzed that false and misleading activities undertaken by the organization, for the sake of green promotion break the trust of customers.
This has negative impact on their satisfaction. However, Sivesan, Achchuthan and Umanakenan, argue that green marketed products are over - priced which demotivates the customers and restrains them from purchasing. It has been fund that as green products are manufactured with ethical practices and uses of environmental friendly methods, these require high quality processing and manufacturing Sivesan, Achchuthan and Umanakenan, Also, components that go into making these products have been sourced ethically keeping the interests of protecting environment before organizational motives.
As such, these factors raise the prices of products for which green marketing is done. It can be critically evaluated that considering the prices of products and services in UK, customers are not satisfied with green marketing. However, Slevitch and et. In their study, authors found that green marketing is only related to packaging and promotion of the product. These are external aspects and are considered only for the purpose of promotion of environmental protection features of products Slevitch and et.
Hence, these may develop the trust and confidence of the customers and may satisfy them. Customers increasingly expect the organizations to undertake activities for the betterment of environment. When the firms succeed to do so, it grants satisfaction to the consumers. Green marketing implies that the firm is resducing its impact on the environment.
This suggests that an organization is using fewer chemicals, discharging fewer emissions into the environment and using environmentally friendly processes for manufacturing the products.
This fulfills the expectations of the customers thus leading to their satisfaction. Rahbar and Wahid found in their study that environmental protection is concerned with safeguarding the components of environment for present as well as future generations Rahbar and Wahid, It can be analysed that environment is protected when the needs of the present generation are met in a way that the ability of future generations to meet their needs is not compromised.
The end product of green marketing is preserving the environment for the present and future generations. They also adopt better pollution controls and biodegradable and recyclable packaging Richey and et. In this way, green marketing strategy has significant positive impact on environmental protection in UK. For example, British Airways has set the goal of producing sustainable jet fuel.
This is a low carbon jet fuel which will help the company provide its services thereby reducing its impact on the environment GreenSky London Biofuel Plant Preparing for Lift-off, Liu, Kasturiratne and Moizer claim that green marketing begins with green designing. For example, hospitality organizations of UK like Hilton hotel and Ritz Carlton hotel use processes and products that are environmentally friendly while providing its services Liu, Kasturiratne and Moizer, Energy saving detergents is used by the hotels for washing and cleaning purposes.
Efficient utilization of space is another initiative that is taken by these hotels with the perspective of green marketing. These reduce the harms that organizational activities can cause to the environment.
It can be analysed that green marketing assists in protection of the environment. Sharma and Iyer, add that green distribution of product is an initiative that is undertaken by many firms in UK. For example, retailers like Sainsbury distribute their products to the customers by use of energy efficient fuels. This helps in reducing emissions of toxic pollutants in the air Sharma and Iyer, As such, the air quality is maintained with green marketing practices.
This protects air, which is an important component of environment, from getting polluted. Chan assert that environment safety is about following the laws that have been made regarding areas such as management of hazardous material, Harmful pollution etc. This implies complying with the laws that govern the areas of environmental safety. It can be evaluated that green marketing helps in protecting the environment.
This is because it makes the organization work as per the standards that are built for safeguarding the natural surroundings. However, Juwaheer, Pudaruth and Noyaux, argue that implementing processes and operations for environmental protection is not an easy task to be done Juwaheer, Pudaruth and Noyaux, It can be critically analysed that organizations may adopt green marketing only to show the customers that the products are prepared by caring for the environment.
Thus, the companies might actually not adopt green practices but only promote the environmental protection features of their products. In such cases, there may be negative impact of business activities on natural surroundings thus endangering environment and its various components.
Existing literature explores the concept of customer satisfaction in relation to other aspects. Studies have been done by various authors that highlight the evolution of marketing into green marketing. There are other researches that were done on green marketing and its importance.
However, none of the researches done earlier focused on impact of green marketing on customer satisfaction as well as environmental protection. In this regard, the present research explores the link between green marketing and customer satisfaction.
In this way, it incorporates the existing literature on green marketing and customer satisfaction. There are two types of research paradigms. These are known as positivism and interpretivism. This type of philosophy focuses on obtaining the meaning. This philosophy consists of the data of experience. It affirms that knowledge about matters of fact is obtained on the basis of positive data experience.
It assumes that only authentic knowledge is the scientific knowledge. It also considers that this knowledge can be obtained only from positive affirmation of theories by using strict scientific methods Introduction, The present dissertation uses a combination of interpretivism and positivism philosophy. Interpretivism philosophy was used because it enabled the researcher to give importance to his beliefs.
Moreover, which carrying out the present research on green marketing, the researcher could study the phenomenon in its natural environment. Social and natural reality is considered different by this approach. Thus, it focuses on using different types of methods. As sch, this philosophy was suitable as it helped the researcher to accurately interpret the elements of the study. Moreover, with this philosophy, significant assistance was provided in gaining information about the thoughts of customers as well as their actions.
Positivism philosophy was also used by the researcher. In the present research, this philosophy was used because it helped in applying relevant techniques for investigating the phenomenon of green marketing.
It assisted in collecting evidence that was measurable, empirical and measurable. There are two types of research approaches known as inductive and deductive. Inductive approach focuses on observing the elements that are related to the research problem Neuman and Robson, As such, this approach makes use of a new theory for resolving the problem.
Deductive approach, on the other hand, is concerned with development of hypothesis on the basis on an existing theory. Following this, research strategy is designed to test the hypothesis. This approach moves from general to more specific. In the present dissertation on green marketing, there has been use of inductive approach.
Inductive approach was used in the present study because it helped in referring to the entire findings of the literature review. Additionally, with this approach, the researcher was also able to address research objectives appropriately. A flexible structure was provided by this approach. Moreover, inductive approach moves from specific to general.
As such, with its use, the researcher could make specific observations regarding behavior of customers. He could also observe the impacts on environmental protection.
By making these specific observations, researcher could develop broad generalizations regarding impact of green marketing. This helped in finding out the impact of green marketing on customer satisfaction and environmental protection. There are various types of research designs such as descriptive, exploratory, explanatory etc.
Descriptive design is used for providing descriptions of a population or phenomenon Smith, The queries related to how, why and when are not answered by this design. In contrast to this, exploratory research is the initial research which is conducted into a hypothetical or theoretical idea. This lays the initial groundwork for future studies to be conducted. It is done either to explore a new topic or a new angle to the topic.
The purpose of explanatory research is to connect ideas for understanding cause and effect. This is undertaken to understand how things come together and interact with each other. The present dissertation on impact of green marketing employs descriptive research design. The rationale behind using this design for the present research is given as follows. It helped the researcher in determining the impact of green marketing on customer satisfaction and environmental protection.
In the present study, the researcher wanted to describe the specific behaviour of customers and their satisfaction level, as it occurs in the natural setting. Description design helped in the same. Moreover, there are three types of categories in descriptive design. These are observation, case studies and surveys.
As such, with this design, views of the customers regarding green marketing could be obtained by the researcher with the help of survey Kirk, Questionnaire could be filled by them which were then used for analysing the data and reaching to the conclusion.
There are three types of research strategies known as experiment, survey and case study. In experimental strategy, there is introduction of a treatment. This adheres to a scientific method.
Experiment strategy helps in identification of a cause and effect relationship. Case studies lay emphasis on individual or small group. By comparing cases, a comprehensive analysis could be conducted. Survey strategy, on the other hand, is used for gathering large amounts of information by asking questions to the respondents.
In the present research, survey strategy has been used because the researcher was required to obtain views of the customers regarding impact of green marketing. This could best be done with the help of survey. Population is the collection of all the items or people which have the characteristic that researcher wants to understand. For the present dissertation, population comprises of customers of UK. The technique which is utilized for studying a few units of a population is known as sampling.
This selection of unit is known as a sample. When a survey is to be conducted, it is not feasible for the researcher to collect information from the entire population. This is the reason behind applying sampling technique FitzGerald and et.
Sampling can be categorized into probabilistic and non probabilistic sampling. In probabilistic sampling, every unit of the population has an equal chance of being included in the study. In contrast to this, non probabilistic sampling is any type of sampling where there is no chance of selection of some elements. For the present dissertation on green marketing, probabilistic sampling technique has been utilized. The researcher selected the sample by utilizing simple random sampling technique.
This is because in this method, all the units of the population have equal chance of being included in the sample. In the present study, the population consisted of customers of UK. As such, simple random sampling technique was most suitable as it provided equal chance to every customer to be included in the research. This was the rationale behind its use. With simple random sampling generalizations can be made from the sample to the entire population Dwyer and Buckle, In sampling methods, another important concept is that of sample size.
The total number of units of a population, that will take part in the study constitute the sample size. As such, sample size is the total number of respondents who provide data for the study. The sample size for the present study was Data collection methods assume a significant place in the study. It is important for the researcher to use relevant data collection methods so that objectives of the research could be attained. There are basically two methods of data collection.
They are known as primary and secondary methods. For the present research on green marketing, both primary and secondary methods were used by the researcher. Primary method consists of those techniques using which a researcher collects data for the first time specifically for a particular research Bryman, This is also known as first hand information.
Primary data is collected by using various methods such as interviews, focus groups, observations, surveys, questionnaire etc. In the present dissertation on green marketing, the researcher has collected primary data by using questionnaire survey method.
Through this, views of customers regarding ways in which green marketing impacts them, have been obtained. Although these methods are time consuming and involve high cost, but this gave the researcher a higher level of control on data. Secondary data comprises of that information that has already been published before. This data was collected by other researchers for conduction their study. It is for this reason that it is also known as second hand information Stein and Mankowski, In the present research on analyzing the impact of green marketing, secondary methods of data collection were also use by the researcher.
There was use of previous studies done by different authors. These helped in gaining information on the subject matter and reaching to the results of the study. For this purpose, the researcher obtained secondary data from journals, books, online articles, blogs, research papers, government reports of UK etc. There are two important concepts of validity and reliability that need to be considered by a researcher while carrying out the study. The reason behind this is that it is important for the researcher to use relevant tools and techniques for carrying out the research Ihantola and Kihn, All the methods and instruments that are used should successfully serve the purpose of research.
In this regard, validity is the quality of a study to be sound in factual and logical manner. It tells that a study should assess what it aims to. In the present research, the concept of validity has been addressed by the researcher. Valid primary and secondary data collection tools have been used. These helped in assessing the impact of green marketing, which was also the aim of the study. Using these tools, views of customers could be obtained regarding green marketing.
As such, they effectively served the purpose of determining the impact of green marketing on customer satisfaction and environmental protection. Another important concept that the researcher addressed was that of reliability.
This is the ability of a tool to produce consistent results Harrison and Reilly, Thus, the concept of reliability helped in testing whether similar results can be produced by a study if it is conducted again. For the present dissertation, which was aimed as determining the impact of green marketing in UK, the researcher collected information by using authenticated sources.
In this way, the researcher has maintained reliability of the present research. A comparison of online and offline mediums. The case of the airline industry in the UK. Advantages and limitations of direct marketing. Advantages and issues for small companies. The case of small companies in UK. For some products and services, cultural considerations can play an important role in how marketers interact with consumers.
Marketing across cultures is becoming more prominent in business, as more and more businesses are expanding throughout the world. This creates an ideal area to base your marketing dissertation on. The case of banks in the Basque country and Catalonia, Spain.
The case of the North-South divide in Sweden. The case of the Champagne region, France. Marketing is fundamentally underpinned by consumer behaviour, which can largely be explained by examining consumer psychology.
This highlights how consumers behave in each stage of the buying process and why they react as they do. On this basis, marketers can design and implement communication strategies that target specific customer groups based on their psychological profiles. Some suggestions to base your marketing dissertation within the area of marketing and consumer psychology are as below:. The case of blockbuster marketing. An examination of the mobile ringtone market in the UK.
When marketing moves online the traditional rules are either broken or extended. Such extensions include the need to take into account privacy, security, the greater ability to customise and personalise user experiences, the changing nature of consumer behaviour and the interaction of online and offline mediums.
Online marketing has become essential for organisations in gaining competitive advantages and enhancing their business performance. Online marketing is a useful and current area of market research. Some suggestions to base your dissertation on online marketing are as below:. The case of Apple. The case of Nike. The case of Dell Computers. The case of buying computers online.
The case of Amazon. The case of eBay. With the lowering of mobile phone tariffs and the increased levels of Internet browsing using mobile phones, this medium has become increasingly important to marketers. Below are suggestions for dissertation topics in the area of mobile marketing:. The case of Vodafone. The 4Ps concept represents the cornerstone of marketing is widely used by marketing managers when trying to influence consumer decision-making processes.
Below are suggestions for dissertation topics in the area of the Marketing mix:. The case of music sales. The case of iTunes. The cases of Nike, Shell, and Marks and Spencer.
The case of the alcoholic drinks industry in the US. The case of comparison websites. The case of low and high involvement product categories. Social media networks e. As social media networks become more popular, a marketing dissertation in this area will be timely and in line with current marketing research trends. The relationship between total installs, daily active users, and application valuation.
The cases of Facebook, Instagram and Twitter. An investigation into online customer reviews. Implications for marketing managers.
The power of the media in changing consumer attitudes has a significant impact on how firms are expected to behave, as well as how they should integrate ethics into their marketing campaigns.
Green marketing and green purchasing behaviour. This chapter consists of numbers of sections. First, we will introduce and discuss about marketing follow by green marketing, the evolution of green marketing and also the green purchasing behavior in Malaysia. We can help with your dissertation! Find out more about how our dissertation.
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