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Step 10: Research Paper Conclusion

The Structure of a Research Paper

❶Research papers generally follow the same basic structure:

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Writing Your Introduction
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Think of your thesis as a signpost that lets readers know in what direction the paper is headed. Read the first draft of his introduction.

The thesis is underlined. Note how Jorge progresses from the opening sentences to background information to his thesis. Over the past decade, increasing numbers of Americans have jumped on the low-carb bandwagon. Some studies estimate that approximately 40 million Americans, or about 20 percent of the population, are attempting to restrict their intake of food high in carbohydrates Sanders and Katz, ; Hirsch, Proponents of low-carb diets say they are not only the most effective way to lose weight, but they also yield health benefits such as lower blood pressure and improved cholesterol levels.

Meanwhile, some doctors claim that low-carb diets are overrated and caution that their long-term effects are unknown. Although following a low-carbohydrate diet can benefit some people, these diets are not necessarily the best option for everyone who wants to lose weight or improve their health. Write the introductory paragraph of your research paper. Try using one of the techniques listed in this section to write an engaging introduction. Be sure to include background information about the topic that leads to your thesis.

Writers often work out of sequence when writing a research paper. If you find yourself struggling to write an engaging introduction, you may wish to write the body of your paper first. Writing the body sections first will help you clarify your main points.

Writing the introduction should then be easier. You may have a better sense of how to introduce the paper after you have drafted some or all of the body. In your introduction, you tell readers where they are headed. In your conclusion, you recap where they have been. For this reason, some writers prefer to write their conclusions soon after they have written their introduction. However, this method may not work for all writers. Other writers prefer to write their conclusion at the end of the paper, after writing the body paragraphs.

No process is absolutely right or absolutely wrong; find the one that best suits you. No matter when you compose the conclusion, it should sum up your main ideas and revisit your thesis. Restate it in different words that reflect the new perspective gained through your research. That helps keep your ideas fresh for your readers.

An effective writer might conclude a paper by asking a new question the research inspired, revisiting an anecdote presented earlier, or reminding readers of how the topic relates to their lives. If your job involves writing or reading scientific papers, it helps to understand how professional researchers use the structure described in this section.

A scientific paper begins with an abstract that briefly summarizes the entire paper. The body provides details about the study, such as who participated in it, what the researchers measured, and what results they recorded.

One of the challenges of writing a research paper is successfully integrating your ideas with material from your sources. Your paper must explain what you think, or it will read like a disconnected string of facts and quotations.

However, you also need to support your ideas with research, or they will seem insubstantial. How do you strike the right balance? You have already taken a step in the right direction by writing your introduction. The introduction and conclusion function like the frame around a picture.

They define and limit your topic and place your research in context. In the body paragraphs of your paper, you will need to integrate ideas carefully at the paragraph level and at the sentence level. You will use topic sentences in your paragraphs to make sure readers understand the significance of any facts, details, or quotations you cite. You will also include sentences that transition between ideas from your research, either within a paragraph or between paragraphs.

At the sentence level, you will need to think carefully about how you introduce paraphrased and quoted material. Earlier you learned about summarizing, paraphrasing, and quoting when taking notes. In the next few sections, you will learn how to use these techniques in the body of your paper to weave in source material to support your ideas.

This technique is appropriate when only the major ideas are relevant to your paper or when you need to simplify complex information into a few key points for your readers. Be sure to review the source material as you summarize it. Identify the main idea and restate it as concisely as you can—preferably in one sentence. Depending on your purpose, you may also add another sentence or two condensing any important details or examples.

Check your summary to make sure it is accurate and complete. Over the past few years, a number of clinical studies have explored whether high-protein, low-carbohydrate diets are more effective for weight loss than other frequently recommended diet plans, such as diets that drastically curtail fat intake Pritikin or that emphasize consuming lean meats, grains, vegetables, and a moderate amount of unsaturated fats the Mediterranean diet. A study found that obese teenagers who followed a low-carbohydrate diet lost an average of Two studies that measured weight loss for obese adults following these same three diet plans found similar results.

Over three months, subjects on the low-carbohydrate diet plan lost anywhere from four to six kilograms more than subjects who followed other diet plans. In three recent studies, researchers compared outcomes for obese subjects who followed either a low-carbohydrate diet, a low-fat diet, or a Mediterranean diet and found that subjects following a low-carbohydrate diet lost more weight in the same time Howell, A summary restates ideas in your own words—but for specialized or clinical terms, you may need to use terms that appear in the original source.

For instance, Jorge used the term obese in his summary because related words such as heavy or overweight have a different clinical meaning. On a separate sheet of paper, practice summarizing by writing a one-sentence summary of the same passage that Jorge already summarized.

A paraphrased source differs from a summarized source in that you focus on restating the ideas, not condensing them. Again, it is important to check your paraphrase against the source material to make sure it is both accurate and original. Inexperienced writers sometimes use the thesaurus method of paraphrasing—that is, they simply rewrite the source material, replacing most of the words with synonyms.

This constitutes a misuse of sources. In his draft, Jorge frequently paraphrased details from sources. At times, he needed to rewrite a sentence more than once to ensure he was paraphrasing ideas correctly. Read the passage from a website. Dieters nearly always get great results soon after they begin following a low-carbohydrate diet, but these results tend to taper off after the first few months, particularly because many dieters find it difficult to follow a low-carbohydrate diet plan consistently.

People usually see encouraging outcomes shortly after they go on a low-carbohydrate diet, but their progress slows down after a short while, especially because most discover that it is a challenge to adhere to the diet strictly Heinz, After reviewing the paraphrased sentence, Jorge realized he was following the original source too closely. He did not want to quote the full passage verbatim, so he again attempted to restate the idea in his own style.

Because it is hard for dieters to stick to a low-carbohydrate eating plan, the initial success of these diets is short-lived Heinz, On a separate sheet of paper, follow these steps to practice paraphrasing. Most of the time, you will summarize or paraphrase source material instead of quoting directly. Doing so shows that you understand your research well enough to write about it confidently in your own words.

However, direct quotes can be powerful when used sparingly and with purpose. Quoting directly can sometimes help you make a point in a colorful way. Direct quotations from an interviewee or an eyewitness may help you personalize an issue for readers. And when you analyze primary sources, such as a historical speech or a work of literature, quoting extensively is often necessary to illustrate your points.

These are valid reasons to use quotations. Less experienced writers, however, sometimes overuse direct quotations in a research paper because it seems easier than paraphrasing. At best, this reduces the effectiveness of the quotations. At worst, it results in a paper that seems haphazardly pasted together from outside sources. Use quotations sparingly for greater impact. When you do choose to quote directly from a source, follow these guidelines:.

Jorge interviewed a dietician as part of his research, and he decided to quote her words in his paper. Sure, for some people, they are great, but for most, any sensible eating and exercise plan would work just as well. Notice how Jorge smoothly integrated the quoted material by starting the sentence with an introductory phrase. Throughout the writing process, be scrupulous about documenting information taken from sources.

Before we move on and talk about actually writing your rough draft , we 39;re going to give you a quick step-by-step Add quotes from your research to your outline. For a short paper , say pages, I try to write my first draft in a single sitting.

If you have limited research to include, just write the argument and nbsp; 1 The Research Paper: Many first-year These activities help students explore different avenues of research , think through problems and stumbling Step Rough Draft — Writing Video by Brightstorm. A rough draft is the stage of essay writing that occurs between outlining and essay editing.

As someone who 39;s probably not familiar with all the research the writer has done, you The key to good editing is to help the writer see his or her paper through the nbsp; Can I write a page rough draft of a research paper overnight in one night, but remember that what you 39;re When I was in college I wrote research papers for money for other students and to pass my paper on time with the help of the writers from quot;Marvelous Essay quot;.

Don 39;t forget to check the rest of the essay: August 29, at PaperCoach can help you with all your papers, so check it out right now! How to write a research paper Help amp; Writing Concordia University There is no magic formula for writing a successful research paper. You must be logged in to reply to this topic. Understanding and using a web hosting By Aladin. Understanding databases By Aladin. Send this to a friend Your email Recipient email Send Cancel.

Before you write a thesis statement, you should collect, organize and analyze materials and your ideas. You cannot make a finally formulated statement before you have completed your reseach paper.

It will naturally change while you develop your ideas. Stay away from generic and too fuzzy statements and arguments.

Use a particular subject. The paper should present something new to the audience to make it interesting and educative to read. Avoid citing other authors in this section.

Present your own ideas in your own words instead of simply copying from other writers. If you have time and opportunity, show it to your instructor to revise. Otherwise, you may estimate it yourself. A well-prepared thesis means well-shaped ideas. It increases credibility of the paper and makes good impression about its author. More helpful hints about Writing a Research Paper. An informal outline working outline is a tool helping an author put down and organize their ideas.

It is subject to revision, addition and canceling, without paying much attention to form. In a formal outline, numbers and letters are used to arrange topics and subtopics. The letters and numbers of the same kind should be placed directly under one another.

The topics denoted by their headings and subheadings should be grouped in a logical order. All points of a research paper outline must relate to the same major topic that you first mentioned in your capital Roman numeral. The purpose of an outline is to help you think through your topic carefully and organize it logically before you start writing.

A good outline is the most important step in writing a good paper. Check your outline to make sure that the points covered flow logically from one to the other. Make the first outline tentative. What is the chief reason you are writing the paper? State also how you plan to approach your topic. Is this a factual report, a book review, a comparison, or an analysis of a problem?

Explain briefly the major points you plan to cover in your paper and why readers should be interested in your topic. BODY — This is where you present your arguments to support your thesis statement. Remember the Rule of 3, i. Begin with a strong argument, then use a stronger one, and end with the strongest argument for your final point. Explain why you have come to this particular conclusion.

Organize all the information you have gathered according to your outline. Critically analyze your research data. Using the best available sources, check for accuracy and verify that the information is factual, up-to-date, and correct.

Opposing views should also be noted if they help to support your thesis. This is the most important stage in writing a research paper. Here you will analyze, synthesize, sort, and digest the information you have gathered and hopefully learn something about your topic which is the real purpose of doing a research paper in the first place. You must also be able to effectively communicate your thoughts, ideas, insights, and research findings to others through written words as in a report, an essay, a research or term paper, or through spoken words as in an oral or multimedia presentation with audio-visual aids.

Do not include any information that is not relevant to your topic, and do not include information that you do not understand. Make sure the information that you have noted is carefully recorded and in your own words, if possible. Plagiarism is definitely out of the question. Document all ideas borrowed or quotes used very accurately.

As you organize your notes, jot down detailed bibliographical information for each cited paragraph and have it ready to transfer to your Works Cited page. Devise your own method to organize your notes. One method may be to mark with a different color ink or use a hi-liter to identify sections in your outline, e.

Group your notes following the outline codes you have assigned to your notes, e. This method will enable you to quickly put all your resources in the right place as you organize your notes according to your outline. Start with the first topic in your outline. Read all the relevant notes you have gathered that have been marked, e. Summarize, paraphrase or quote directly for each idea you plan to use in your essay.

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That first, rough draft is immensely important in shaping how your paper will ultimately turn out. You can see how your ideas work together on the page, find spots that you need to beef up with more research, and discover where tweaks and restructuring might need to .

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Creating a Rough Draft for a Research Paper. Learning Objectives. Apply strategies for drafting an effective introduction and conclusion. Identify when and how to summarize, paraphrase, and directly quote information from research sources. Quoting directly can sometimes help you make a point in a colorful way. If an author’s words. Research paper rough draft for students to help in paper writing. Which may or may not i ve set out above, wages in the study. This constitutes another win-win situation.

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At last, you are ready to begin writing the rough draft of your research paper. Putting your thinking and research into words is exciting. It can also be challenging. – Answers A rough draft is a version of your paper that is complete but not polished. starting your rough draft, to help organize your ideas and arguments nbsp; How to Write a First Draft A first draft is a way to elaborate on the main points of your essay stated in to write about, the first draft can help you understand how to write.