From the 'Mathew' to the 'Manhattan,' to  is notable only because it includes the voyage of the S. Manhattan , an ice-breaker, from Manhattan to Point Barrow in the succession of expeditions seeking the Northwest Passage. The trip was to prove that the Northwest Passage could be used to bring oil from Prudhoe Bay to the eastern seaboard. Another connection with the Manhattan's trip and earlier trips is made in an essay by Neil M. Clark in which he links the icebreaker to earlier research.
The Canadian Arctic Expedition, Vilhjalmur Stefansson was an extremely prolific writer of popular accounts of his explorations and of his often controversial ideas.
His explorations are not covered by Berton because of the time period, and not covered by Caswell because of the Canadian sponsorship of his major expedition. Works about Stefansson vary from adoration to damnation. He is at times quite critical of Stefansson, as were many others at the time.
The disasters and embarrassments resulting from that expedition, such as the deaths of some of the personnel, including scientists, loss of the ship Karluk , and the problems with the Canadian Geological Survey, caused the Canadian government to ostracize Stefansson, and he consequently developed his career in the United States. The book does cover Stefansson's role on the Anglo-American Polar Expedition and suggests ways that expedition might have influenced his ideas on everything from survival techniques to geographical research.
A note on Stefansson's feelings about the Anglo-American Polar Expedition is interesting because the attitude is not apparent in the other accounts of that expedition. Diubaldo writes that 'Having been wounded and poorly treated by the Anglo-American Polar Expedition, Stefansson was determined to be his own master. The political connections that Stefansson had and used are covered. Especially interesting is how Stefansson, an ethnographer, became connected with the Canadian Geological Survey, then under the direction of R.
At that time, some geologists and other scientists doing field work also collected ethnographic materials and part of the Survey's legislated function was to study the native peoples of Canada. Materials for the new National Museum were wanted. Brock saw that for a small financial investment, he could have Stefansson bring back anthropological specimens for the museum.
The conflict between the two co-commanders, the zoologist Rudolph Andersen and the explorer and anthropology graduate student Stefansson, is another example of the scientist-explorer dichotomy. The reasons Andersen gave for not being able to get his work done are similar to the complaints of other scientists on Arctic expeditions. The author notes that Leffingwell's work had long-term importance.
An odd comment by the author is that there was poor evidence for Mikkelsen's belief in land in the Beaufort Sea. According to other sources, many people thought that the theory of land forms in the northern seas based on the tidal movement was convincing.
Vilhjalmur Stefansson in full Arctic clothing, Just two of the many books Vilhjalmur Stefansson wrote are mentioned here. An important source of information on Stefansson's attitudes about himself and of a very different point of view from others on his expeditions is Discovery: The Autobiography of Vilhjalmur Stefansson.
A small section of Berton C. Willard's biography Russell W. He further points out that the expedition commander E. Baldwin would not let the men keep a record of the trip in their diaries. This may explain, in part, the lack of written accounts of the expedition. Ernest de Koven Leffingwell was not interested in writing a dramatic account of his adventures, but offered short accounts to several popular magazines upon request.
He gives details of the plans for reaching the pole, and mentions but does not complain as much as he did in other places about having to spend time carrying supplies to support the pole efforts rather than doing his scientific work. In an interesting aside, he recounts a story about Russell Porter killing a polar bear, but it is a bit different from Porter's account in his journal. As an almost-alumnus of the University of Chicago--he never finished the doctorate he was working on there when he left for the Arctic--Leffingwell contributed 'A Communication from Leffingwell' to the University of Chicago's alumni magazine.
In this short article, Leffingwell tells how he learned about the Baldwin-Ziegler Polar Expedition, describes the work he hoped to do and the work he actually did, and how he and Ejnar Mikkelsen made plans for their own expedition. He gives a brief summary of the reasons they thought there might be new lands or even an 'undiscovered continent' in the polar sea. Their soundings in did establish the location of the continental shelf in the region, which proved that there was no large land mass there.
Leffingwell also describes the trip in the Argo , which is much more fully detailed in Clark's article. Leffingwell provides a good summary of the whole expedition and notes that his own journals have little value.
They had agreed at the outset that Leffingwell would write the scientific reports and Mikkelsen the narrative of the expedition. Mikkelsen's Conquering the Arctic Ice is an extremely detailed, dramatic account of winds, currents, and shoals when covering the sailing aspects of the trip, and high pressure ridges, open lanes between the ice floes, problems with dogs, and days spent in tents weathering storms when covering the trips on the pack ice.
The dangers of traveling in the north are not as exaggerated as in earlier accounts, but they certainly are prominent in the book. It fits into that category of Arctic adventure story that Leffingwell did not like!
Mikkelsen is full of praise for almost all the members of the expedition. There is no mention of the problems that seem to have arisen among the members when Mikkelsen wanted to go out on the ice again and Leffingwell wanted to map inland.
The only comment on the scientific results of the expedition is that they 'had ascertained the extent of the Continental Shelf, and even if we had not found the land we had so implicitly believed in, it was a consolation for us to know that to prove the absence of land was of as much scientific value as to find it! The report covers all aspects of what was considered scientific work at the time: He also includes valuable social and political information such as the effects of the type of publicity the expeditions received, attitudes of members of Congress toward funding expeditions, and funding the publishing of results and reports.
The chapter on geology gives a context in which to look at any one geologist's work and contains many references to the original geological literature. Even the Franklin search expeditions were important in that geological materials, mostly fossils, were brought back.
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