Laws that don't involve penalties can reference dates in thepast to allow an income tax break or permit eligibility for aprogram based on past actions such as fighting in a war. The reason the Constitution prevents Congress and the states fromwriting ex post facto laws is to protect the population and otherentities from government abuse.
Latin for "After the fact". Also a retroactive law. Wikipedia says, it "is a law that retroactively changes the legal consequences of acts committed or the legal status of facts and relationships that existed prior to the enactment of the law. This is forbidden by the U. Examples of descriptive research? Example of secondary research? Primary research refers to the generation of original work andfindings, which can build on the knowledge of others.
Secondaryresearch involves taking primary work and existing work and writingsummaries based on them for example. What is the definition of ex post facto? You can think of it as meaning, "after the fact. For instance, if they passed an ex post facto law outlawing Big Gulps, and you were pulled over, and a cop found an old Big Gulp container in your car, you would be punished, even though you bought and consumed the Big Gulp long before the law was passed.
Explain ex post facto? Article I, section 9 of the U. Constitution sets forth that "[n]o Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed. It literally means "after the fact". An ex post facto law is a law that criminalizes or decriminalizes, retroactively, some specified conduct.
The ex post facto clauses have been interpreted liberally by the Court. These decisions have specifically prohibited retroactive criminal laws, including rules of evidence that would reasonably facilitate, to a greater extent than previously, a conviction. What is ex post facoto? I think you mean ex post facto, which is latin for "after the fact". What are the Examples of Experimental Research? Experimental reseach is basically research about what yourtopic is.
For example, if you are measuring the effect of differenttypes of air in balloons, you might want to ask research questionssuch as "What is helium" or "What type of air is released when Iblow into the balloon" or maybe even "What types of things canalter the result of my experiment? Just make sure you give background information, studies,procedures, and equiptments. I hope this helped you! What is an example of historical research?
Researching your or someone elses family tree or geneology is a form of historical research. What is example of historical research? Historical research might include things like a timeline of eventsof a war, facts about an individual or research into a group orbusiness over time. Historical research relates to the past as wellas current information. What is ex-post-facto design?
What are the examples of applied research? An example of applied research is trying to find a cure for cancer. Applied research is used to find solutions to practical problems. What are the examples of longitudinal method of research? A longitudinal study is a study that goes on for a long time. Anexample of this method of research would be an ethnography.
Examples of exploratory research? Exploratory research refers to the research aimed at theexploration of something like the exploration of gold. What are Assumptions in research give examples? An assumption is a condion taken for granted but without which the research effort cannot go ahead.
What is an example of applied research? Get a quick glance at all our research, products, tools, and services related to enterprise software evaluation, comparison, and selection. Enterprise Software Selection Executive Shortcuts.
Executive shortcuts provide you with a quick glance at all our research, products, tools, and services related to enterprise software evaluation, comparison, and selection There are many examples of descriptive research. One way to easilyshow an example of descriptive research is to show how the periodictable categorizes the elements.
Examples of research proposal? There are an unlimited number of research proposals. You couldsubmit a research proposal on poverty and violence for example. What is an example of ex post facto law? An ex post facto law from the Latin for "from after the action" or retroactive law, is a law that retroactively changes the legal consequences or status of actions committed or relationships that existed prior to the enactment of the law.
In reference to criminal law, it may criminalize actions that were legal when committed; or it may aggravate a crime by bringing it into a more severe category than it was in at the time it was committed; or it may change or increase the punishment prescribed for a crime, such as by adding new penalties or extending terms; or it may alter the rules of evidence in order to make conviction for a crime more likely than it would have been at the time of the action for which a defendant is prosecuted.
Conversely, a form of ex post facto law commonly known as an amnesty law may decriminalize certain acts or alleviate possible punishments for example by replacing the death sentence with life-long imprisonment retroactively. What is an example of an Ex Post Facto Law? What are examples of historical research?
Historical research is the examination of a past event andproviding details concerning it. One example is how slaveryimpacted the Civil War. This is an informative type of research. Examples of public opinion research? Example of Public Opinion: What does ex post facto research mean? This action relates back to a prior time, and imposes this new effect upon the same set of circumstances that existed at the time of the occurrence. When referring to law or legislation, establishing ex post facto laws is prohibited by the U.
In scientific terms it could refer to research conducted into a particular phenomenon conducted AFTER it has taken place. Ex post facto research is the process beginning with a phenomenon and going backward in time to identify casual factors. In criminal law, it can mean that laws cannot be applied retroactively.
Examples of quantitative research? Quantitative research is anything that uses numbers. An example ofsuch research could be a survey asking people how much they make.
Example for descriptive research? Ethnography has its roots in anthropology and was a popular form of inquiry at the turn of the century when anthropologists travelled the world in search of remote tribes. The emphasis in ethnography is on describing and interpreting cultural behaviour. Ethnographers immerse themselves in the lives and culture of the group being studied, often living with that group for months on end. These researchers participate in a groups' activities whilst observing its behaviour, taking notes, conducting interviews, analysing, reflecting and writing reports - this may be called fieldwork or participant observation.
Ethnographers highlight the importance of the written text because this is how they portray the culture they are studying.. There is some argument about whether feminist inquiry should be considered a methodology or epistemology, but in my opinion it can be both. As we have seen, methodology is the philosophy or the general principle which will guide your research. Epistemology, on the other hand, is the study of the nature of knowledge and justification.
It looks at from where knowledge has come and how we know what we know. Feminist researchers argue that for too long the lives and experiences of women have been ignored or misrepresented. Often, in the past, research was conducted on male 'subjects' and the results generalised to the whole population. Feminist researchers critique both the research topics and the methods used; especially those which emphasise objective, scientific 'truth'.
With its emphasis on participative, qualitative inquiry, feminist research has provided a valuable alternative framework for researchers who have felt uncomfortable with treating people as research 'objects'.. Grounded theory is a methodology which was first laid out in by two researchers named Glaser and Strauss.
It tends to be a popular form of inquiry in the areas of education and health research. The emphasis in this methodology is on the generation of theory which is grounded in the data - this means that it has emerged from the data.
This is different from other types of research which might seek to test a hypothesis that has been formulated by the researcher. In grounded theory, methods such as focus groups and interviews tend to be the preferred data collection method, along with a comprehensive literature review which takes place throughout the data collection process. This literature review helps to explain emerging results.. In grounded theory studies the number of people to be interviewed is not specified at the beginning of the research.
This is because the researcher, at the outset, is unsure of where the research will take her. Instead, she continues with the data collection until 'saturation' point is reached, that is, no new information is being provided. Grounded theory is therefore flexible and enables new issues to emerge that the researcher may not have thought about previously. What is an ex post factor? This action relates back to a prior time and places this new effect upon the same set of circumstances existing at that time.
Ex post facto laws are prohibited by the U. In plain English it means that you can't pass a law AFTER something takes place making that act either legal or illegal. The law must exist first! What are the examples of empirical research? Empirical research is research that is done by directly observingsomething. An example is your basic science experiment that youlearn in grade school. Ex post facto hypothesizing? Ex post facto" literally means "after the fact".
So ex post facto hypothesizing occurs when you notice a correlation between two variables, andthen make your hypothesis. I do my research and find that TV watching actually shows a much higher correlation with child obesity. So then I change my original hypothesis and disseminate my findings as if that had been my hypothesis all along - to make it look as if I had a correct hypothesis.
An example of ex post facto law? An example would be if a woman was driving in Illinois and thespeed limit was 50mph. So she drove exactly 50mph. The passingpolice officer checked her speed and insured that she was going thegood speed. The next day, Congress decided to lower the speed limitto 40mph. That afternoon, that woman was driving 40mph.
The policeofficer checked her speed and insured that she was going the goodspeed. THEN he remembered that she was driving 50mph yesterday andpulled her over. He would try and give her a ticket for speeding. You're getting punished for a law after the fact. It is meant to prevent a law being passed to make a past actionillegal.
Some countries will discover an action they do not like,but is not against the law. So they pass the law to make thataction illegal and then apply it to people that broke that lawbefore it was passed. Give an example of a research proposal? A research proposal may best be described as a submission for aresearch topic a student wishes to be approved. I research proposalis generally short, but requirements will vary depending on theinstructor assigning it.
A short exampled of a proposal can be: What is an example of informal research? Informal research is a type of research that is not done usingspecific scientific methods. An example of an informal researchmethod would be an online poll or in-person survey. What are some examples in applied research?
An Applied Research is a methodology used to solve practicalproblems of a group or an individual. The applied research covers awide sample of subjects which are all addressing problems.
An example of ex post facto research? Ex post facto research is also known as casual-comparativeresearch. An example would be researching a troublesomeintersection where many fatalities occur.
As you were not witnessnor involved, you would extrapolate based on theory garnered fromcritical observation. Example of a Body of a research paper? The body of a research paper is the largest part of the paper. Thebody is where you present your evidence in a way to persuadereaders to agree with your argument. It should be organized andpartitioned if long. What is the difference between positivist research and post positivist research?
First I would like to refer this issue to epistemology and methodology , which the epistemology is the philosophy of knowledge or of how we come to know and the Methodology is also concerned with how we come to know, but is much more practical in nature. In inference, I can put it in a short way that, the Positivist is the knowledge of realists to uncover the truth in a proved way and the Post-Positivist is the knowledge which is more concerned with critical realistic way.
Can you give me an example of qualitative research? Chapter I Introduction Reasoning is a part and parcel of being a human, so we always tend to use it, every now and then, to justify, to answer questions, to clarify thought and in rationalizing ideas that comes to mind, experiences and result of existence. Thus it is a ways to satisfy our craving in seeking to what is the reality and specially the search for truth and wisdom, that we are trying to understand in this world.
Reasoning is a great tool in knowing and exploring out the world and especially in finding our purpose and meaning of our existence and the tool in knowing the truth and identifying errors, half-truths and refuting them.
But let us not forget the limitations that the mind has. That there are things in this world that we could not really grasp or even imagine with our own capacity in thinking. Simply implying that human mind is finite and has its own limitation and capacity, there will come apart that we cannot completely comprehend with the use reason alone. There comes Obscurity and vagueness in our mind in what have been discovered, saw, explore and etc in this world.
Even exhausting the resources of all human sciences, it cannot really grasp the totality of it, for no human science cannot be perfect and exact all the time in the realms of the nature of truth. For there are things that our mind cannot really comprehend and beyond its capacity. Reasoning by the use of the heart is truly needed and a new way, in a sense that it is not commonly used than human sciences in reaching the infinite wisdom. A wisdom or a knowledge so to speak, that is incomprehensible by the human level of reasoning.
For sometimes believing is the best approach that you can do. But not it a sense of believing blindly; rather, not neglecting the use of mind.
For the Heart is not only a mere intuition or expression of the human person that is opposing towards the logical reasoning of man. Certain objects only become given in the act of the heart. But they do not remain there in a rational intuition, but are accessible to intellectual and rational penetration. It is in vain to understand everything with the use of reason alone.
The maxim of Pascal of accepting the reality of the limitation of the mind and the use of the heart is an idea that is somewhat obscure to the understanding of people. Specially people, who are exposed in the discovery of lot of the human sciences that is in our world. In this study the researcher aims in making a vivid exposition of what really is this heart and its uniqueness. Thus enabling us to see how these kind of reasoning be connected in the formation of the candidates for Priesthood.
It to answer the following questions. Who is Blaise Pascal and what is his Philosophical thought? What is the reasoning of the heart Pascal's Reason? What is the paradox between reason and Pascal's reason? What is the Seminary Formation 5. How can Pascal's reason can be link in the seminary formation? Significance of the Study This study aims at providing an idea of what really is the characteristic and differentiation of reason mind and heart's reason faith , in the primary view of Blaise Pascal way.
Using the heart as an other way in what should be known, consequently in searching the truth not only in the use of reason or the mind. But also by the heart to offer a ground in understanding its uniqueness and in discovering the truths, thus deriving to an idea to see its aid in search for the truth. Its specific relevance may be to the people who seeks for the reality and truth, that resolves to explore beyond the capacity of the natural level of the human reason.
To see the insufficiency of the pool of knowledge that we have, thus being reminded to search for another ways of find out the truth without neglecting or throwing up the ways.
For they are formed not only with the use of mind and and other aspect of formation, but with the use of the heart. Also to let them realized the limitations and shortcomings of the mind. Thus it is significant in the sense that it will help seminarians in their formation, not only in the intellectual aspect but in over-all. For they are not only depending with the use of mind, but also they listens to what our hearts trying to tell us.
Seminarians maybe guided in how to check the reality and in how to determine the limitations that our mind has. Formation is a lifelong process and not all the time mind in the best choice, therefore it signifies also not taking it for granted the heart. Scope and Delimitation Knowing the difference between the heart and the mind or the reason and faith through the reason that is presented by Blaise Pascal, and linking it towards the formation of the candidates for Priesthood or the Seminary Formation.
Seeing the connection of the heart's reason, rationalizing in the sense of using the natural level, and going to the next level of it, that is going beyond the natural level of knowledge with the aid of heart's reasoning. Reasoning and knowing its limitation, and linking it towards seminary formation.
Delimiting the study in the presentation of Blasie Pascal and limiting its concepts and ideas in connecting it towards the seminary formation. They could be the Priest, teachers, Bishops, and etc.. Heart - is conceived as the center of the human personality. The heart includes thoughts, feelings and will and represents the whole personality in its inmost being.
It integrates every energy of a man in the service of a cause to which he owes allegiance. But if one believes and it turns out to be false then one has lost a little, if anything therefor unless the probability of God's existence is infinite. Rational Knowledge - entails ideas, facts and knowledge that comes to the natural level of thinking, that reason alone could suffice and could grasp.
Making some inferences and discovering and knowing something in the level that is not beyond the capacity of the human mind. Reason - is a discursive thought of the mind naturally that connects ideas consciously, coherently and purposively. Seminary Formation - A structure that is purposely created by the Church for the sole aim of forming young men towards priesthood, Supra-Rational Knowledge - it is beyond the natural level that reason could not fully grasp, but with the use of the reasoning of the heart, it is a knowledge that is not only rooted in the rational level and thus exceeds toward the another realms of the knowledge that is beyond the physical aspect and beyond the capacity of the mind.
In this study it is technically used as a Priestly call, and a call towards a venture in the seminary formation gong to Priesthood. Wager - it is used by Blaise Pascal in his famous exposition, to see whether God exist or not, hence it is a person that is a gambler who will risk to bet on; whether in Choosing God is or not and without the use of the reason. Where it is the Primary person who represents the idea of Pascal in proving God's existence.
Methodology The Library Method research was used in this study. The Library method of research is a fact finding study that focuses in garnering interpretations and finding through the books and other reading materials.
It describes what is, the study all about. It describes with emphasis in what actually the mind and norms of certain person and institution through the books, with emphasis through their writings, such as rules, exposition and concepts. Since the study or investigation was concerned in knowing Pascal's reason and linking it in the context of Seminary Formation.
Library method was the most suitable method to be use in this study. Biography Blaise Pascal French mathematician, physicist, and philosopher. A mathematical prodigy, Pascal published his discoveries on the theory of conic sections at the age of sixteen.
He invented the first practicable calculating machine, in , while his experimental and mathematical work on the barometer affords a model of midth-century science and methodology. His celebrated correspondence with Pierre Fermat laid the basis of the modern theory of probability.
Pascal's family were associated with the Jansenists of Port-Royal where his sister was a nun. After a profound religious experience in , Pascal turned to philosophy and theology. His Lettres provinciales are a defense of Arnalaud against his Jesuit opponents, but in spite of his efforts the two Port-Royal convents were closed in Both were published posthumously, and the latter, existing only in fragments, not given a definitive edition until Because of his prevailing scepticism, coupled, however, with a deep faith, Pascal has been compared to Kierkegaard as a leading example of religious conviction based on existential commitment and faith rather than on reason.
Like Berkley, Pascal had a deep concern for the poor, and founded the first ever public bus service, whose profit she gave to charity. Pascal's Wager, of course, depends on their only two choices - no god, or there is God.
So it manifest the choice of the bet of a wager whether to go with there is a God to get a great reward, if there is and looses a little or even nothing if God does not exist. Also to go with there is no God, and if the wager is wrong, he must suffer the consequence of hell and eternal punishment and condemnation. Pascal argues that the expected value of theistic belief is vastly greater that that of unbelief, since if one believes, and commits oneself to a life of faith in God etc..
But if one believes and it turns to be false then one has lost a little, if anything. Therefore unless the probability of God's existence is infinite, it is rational to adopt theistic belief. The key whether we believe in it or not is up to us, but it is somehow created and being consider as an example not as only a rationale for mere deception but as a reason for getting ourselves to believe genuinely.
Such classical example which is used by Pascal to profess his faith to God. Thus it is true that there is an infinite number, but we do not know what it is. It is untrue that it is even, untrue it is odd, for by adding a unit it does not change its nature. Yet it is number, and every number is even or odd.
Is there no substantial truth, seeing that there are so many things which are not truth itself? Thus we know the existence and nature of the finite because we too are finite and extended in space.
We know the existence of the infinite without knowing its nature, because it too has extension but unlike us no limit. But we do not know either the existence or the nature of God, because he has neither extension nor limits.
But by faith we know his existence, through glory we shall know his nature. Thus, Pascal proves that the real existence of the infinite is possible. Such as there is a number that is infinite and as a consequence of being a eternal, we could not really grasp the infinite. Thus we cannot really grasp the infinite by the use of our reason alone or rational knowledge is finite and limited in its sources and it is unbearable for the reason to grasp what he cannot really totally grasp.
Your potential new punishment is for the second DUI and not the first. At the time of your second offense the law already said you could face a felony conviction based on a prior DUI within the past ten years. The ban on ex post facto laws is intended to prevent the government from creating or enhancing crimes or punishments retroactively and thereby exposing people to more punishment than they could have anticipated at the time of their act.
At the time of your second DUI you could have enticipated the felony charge, so there seems to be no violation. Here in California, the three-strickes law applies even where the strikes pre-date the law itself, and the law has not been overturned on ex post facto grounds for the same reasons I outlined above.
What you have to pin down is what the law is at the time of the second offense.
Ex post facto study or after-the-fact research is a category of research design in which the investigation starts after the fact has occurred without interference from the researcher. The majority of social research, in contexts in which it is not possible or acceptable to manipulate the characteristics of human participants, is based on ex post facto .
Ex post facto design is a quasi-experimental study examining how an independent variable, present prior to the study in the participants, affects a dependent variable. A quasi-experimental study simply means participants are not randomly assigned.
Ex-post facto research is systematic empirical inquiry in which the scientist does not have direct control of independent variables because their manifestations have already occurred or because they are inherently not manipulated. Ex post facto research is ideal for conducting social research when is not possible or acceptable to manipulate the characteristics of human .
Ex post facto research When translated literally, ex post facto means ‘from what is done afterwards’. In the context of social and educational research the phrase means ‘after the fact’ or. Designing Research: Ex Post Facto Designs MAUREEN GIUFFRE, PhD, RN The research design is the overall plan or structure of the study. The goal.