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Stem Cell Research

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❶Human Stem Cell Research. There are two main arguments surrounding the ethics of embryonic stem cell research:

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Conclusion
Introduction to Stem Cell Research
Belin Mirabile

One example is the previously stated method of using embryonic stem cells to repair damaged tissue or organs. The only way to restore cellular function in an organ is to literally replace the lost cells and embryonic stem cells provide the best option for producing these cells 3. Embryonic stem cells do also have some disadvantages that should be considered when making the argument for further support of embryonic stem cell research.

Unlike adult stem cells, embryonic stem cells have a higher risk of causing tumor formation in the patient's body after the stem cells are implanted. This is due to their higher capacities for proliferation and differentiation Devolder Embryonic stem cell-based therapies also possess the risk of immunorejection — rejection of the stem cells by the patient's immune system.

Because embryonic stem cells are derived from embryos donated for research after in vitro fertilization treatment, the marker molecules on the surfaces of the cells may not be recognized by the patient's body, and therefore may be destroyed as the result of a defense mechanism by the body Holland This is a problem that will require a solution if embryonic stem cell research is to be the basis for future therapeutic medicine.

Currently, the isolation of embryonic stem cells requires the destruction of an early embryo. Many people hold the belief that a human embryo has significant moral status, and therefore should not be used merely as a means for research. One position that opponents of embryonic stem cell research assert is what "The Ethics of Embryonic Stem Cell Research" calls the full moral status view This view holds that "the early embryo has the same moral status, that is, the same basic moral rights, claims, or interests as an ordinary adult human being.

Therefore, with full moral status as a human being, an embryo should not be deliberately destroyed for research purposes simply because it is human Devolder The Roman Catholic Church is a strong supporter of this view, opposing stem cell research on the grounds that it is a form of abortion. Several other groups, including American evangelicals and Orthodox ethicists, consider "blastocysts to have the same status as fully developed human beings" and therefore oppose embryonic stem cell research for this reason.

Beliefs regarding the moral status of an embryo are subjective, and also their own controversial issue, which complicates the task of creating a universal law for the use of embryonic stem cells for research. Others in opposition, such as Kevin T. Fitzgerald, a Jesuit priest who is a bioethicist and professor of oncology at Georgetown University Medical School, do not consider the moral status of an embryo, but rather assert that Embryos should be protected because they are "that which we all once were" Clemmitt This view is very similar to moral philosopher and professor of philosophy as the University of California at Irvine Philip Nickel's "Loss of Future Life Problem" in regards to embryonic stem cell research.

The Loss of Future Life Problem holds that it is unethical to take the lives of future humans by destroying embryos for research Tobis This stance stresses the potential of those future lives that will never have the chance to reach fulfillment if destroyed for research.

In a retroactive sense, this can cause us to question "what if the embryo that developed into Albert Einstein was destroyed for embryonic stem cell research? The response to this problem is that the particular blastocysts that are harvested for embryonic stem cell research are taken from 1 embryos that are frozen during in vitro fertilization procedures and never implanted, 2 donated egg cells, and 3 embryos created specifically for the purpose of generating new stem cell lines.

In each of these cases, the embryo at hand does not have a future life in plan and therefore, nothing is lost by using such embryonic stem cells for research. For embryos created via in vitro fertilization, the researchers using the embryos are not making a decision that results in the loss of a future life.

The future life of said embryo is lost when the decision is made to not implant it. Therefore, the Loss of Future Life Problem is not a valid objection to research using embryonic stem cells from frozen IVF embryos that are never implanted. Donated egg cells can be fertilized in a lab or through somatic cell nuclear transfer, a process described earlier in this paper. Embryos created specifically for the purpose of contributing to stem cell research have no actual future life to be lost from the moment of conception.

In both of these cases, the intent of fertilization is not to create a future adult human being, and so the Loss of Future Life Problem does not apply to these sources of embryonic stem cells.

If fertilization takes place outside a woman's body, by contrast, then the embryo is not already on its way toward a future life, so destroying it does not deprive it of that particular future" Tobis As shown by the various arguments in this essay, the debate over embryonic stem cell research is a multifaceted scientific, moral, ethical, and political issue.

Embryonic stem cells, with their pluripotent potential and self-renewing quality, hold great value for scientific researchers in search of cures for untreatable diseases, progress in regenerative medicine, or a better understanding of early human development. However, the ethical question still arises, "do the ends justify the means? Varying views regarding the ethical status of an embryo answer this question in different ways, though it is commonly accepted that if the means of obtaining the embryonic stem cells are ethical, then the resulting research of those stem cells is also ethical.

For example, if a donated egg is fertilized in a lab with the intention of being used for future research purposes, the resulting research is therefore morally justified. This is not to be said that the life of an early-stage embryo is to be taken lightly.

More so that our moral perception of these embryos is different than that of a later-stage fetus, an infant, or an adult human being. Phillip Nickel asserts this subconscious difference, claiming that,. This shows that people do view embryos as somewhat different from people, even though they may not realize it" Clemmitt Thus, the moral distinction between a blastocyst and a developed fetus weakens the moral arguments in opposition to embryonic stem cell research.

After all, if this research can reduce suffering for thousands of people, are we not morally obligated to pursue it? Scientists in support of embryonic stem cell research are currently restricted by the limited amounts of federal funding and embryonic stem cell lines available for research. Many argue that these restrictions are preventing further scientific development and weakening the United States' position as a leading nation in biomedical research. Some scientists worry that if strict regulations of stem cell research continue, private companies may bypass the standards put in place by the National Institute of Health and conduct unregulated research Clemmitt If the United States wishes to remain a premiere country in biomedical research and maintain order and control of embryonic research being performed, action must be taken to address this issue.

Overall, though the destruction of a life is typically held to be unethical, the moral status of an embryo in the blastocyst stage is unclear and therefore cannot be equated to the moral status of an adult human being. Also, ethical sources of embryonic stem cells exist that do not take the life of future beings i. For these reasons, in combination with the possibility of reducing suffering for future beings, embryonic stem cell research is ethical under certain circumstances.

As long as the stem cells are isolated in a manner that does not harm an embryo with the plan of developing into an adult human, the subsequent research is ethically justified. With this in mind, embryonic stem cell research should receive greater government funding so that continued progress can be made. Nissim Benvenisty, Wikimedia Commons.

A specific technique has been isolated to utilize stem cells in order to repair a damaged tissue or organ: Scientists could then culture these stem cells by creating conditions that enable them to replicate many times in a petri dish without differentiating. Such a population of proliferating stem cells originating from a single parent group of stem cells is a stem cell line.

Stem cells from this stem cell line could then be coaxed to differentiate in to the desired cell type, and be transferred into the patient so that they can repair the damaged tissue or organ" Devolder 6.

Arguments for Embryonic Stem Cell Research In the realm of stem cell research, embryonic and adult stem cells are often compared. Arguments against Embryonic Stem Cell Research Currently, the isolation of embryonic stem cells requires the destruction of an early embryo.

Conclusion As shown by the various arguments in this essay, the debate over embryonic stem cell research is a multifaceted scientific, moral, ethical, and political issue. Phillip Nickel asserts this subconscious difference, claiming that, "while it's well known that many embryos are shed naturally, in very early abortions and miscarriages, no one makes an effort to save or grieve for them, as frequently happens with later-stage fetuses.

F This means that adult cells taken from blood tissue can only generate other blood tissue cells. Extraction Methods A Bone marrow stem cells are extracted by needle and are taken from the iliac crest hip bone.

Fat stem cells are extracted by needle from a source of the body where there is a large amount of fat hips, bottom, and thighs.

B Blood stem cells are taken directly from the blood stream by two needles. One needle takes out the blood and leads directly to a centrifuge, which separates the stem cells from the other blood components. The rest of the blood is passed through a warmer, where it then reenters the bloodstream via the second needle. Potential Uses of Stem Cells A Many scientists believe that the future of treating complex diseases lies in stem cell research.

B Advances in research may reveal information about how diseases suddenly arise and new treatments for them. C Human stem cells may also be used to regenerate body parts and organs, such as limbs, breasts, kidneys, hearts, livers etc.

Essentially they can grow these parts in Petri dishes, and later attach them to persons in need. E Stem cells can also be programmed to eliminate cancer cells in the body. It also will not have the adverse effects of chemo, like hair loss and extreme nausea.

Ethical Concerns A The ethical debate centers mainly on the extraction and use of embryonic stem cells. Pro-lifers, and those who believe that life begins at contraception, argue that taking cells from unborn babies is essentially killing them. B Scientists argue back that the embryo is not yet a baby, but is merely a sack of cells that does not have the characteristics of life.

D Also, the threat of cloning humans in the future looms. While cloning is considered illegal in the United States, it cannot stop those in other countries from experimenting with cloning.

It could become a threat to national security if this technology got into the wrong hands. Future of Stem Cell Research A In conclusion, stem cell research holds the answers too many of the questions that we are looking for regarding the human body. B New techniques will be developed that will aid in not only understanding why diseases occur, but how to cure them for good.

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The Importance of Stem Cell Research - Stem cell research is a topic almost everybody in the world has a viewpoint on. Many view the issue of stem cell research and stem cell therapy as morally wrong and a crime against humanity, others view the study of stem cells as the next step in modern science.

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Stem cell research is one of the important scientific and political issues of these modern times. The purpose of this sample essay, one of the many writing services offered by Ultius, is to develop a historical and scientific overview of this selected obidytfp.cf essay will begin with a general introduction to stem cell research.5/5(2).

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Free sample research paper on Stem Cell Research, example essay on embryonic stem cells. Online research proposal on Stem Cells. Stem cell research and its funding have caused enormous controversy over the past decade. Stem cells are pluripotent cells present in all living organisms. These cells can differentiate into any.

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Stem cell research is one of the most controversial topics of our day. Any embryonic stem cell research essay needs to carefully weigh up the pros and cons, as well as the ethics involved. Essay on Stem Cell Research Words | 4 Pages Stem Cell Research Research on stem cells is advancing knowledge about how an organism develops from a single cell and how healthy cells replace damaged cells in adult organisms.